Mitochondrial Uncouplers Confer Protection by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase to Inhibit Neuroinflammation Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage
- PMID: 32741941
- DOI: 10.1248/bpb.b20-00108
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a disease with high disability and mortality rates. Currently, the efficacy of therapies available for ICH is limited. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation substantially exacerbates brain damage following ICH. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial uncouplers conferred protection by suppressing neuroinflammation following ICH. To mimic ICH-induced neuroinflammation in vitro, we treated microglia with red blood cell (RBC) lysate. RBC lysate enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia. A clinically used uncoupler, niclosamide (Nic), reduced the RBC lysate-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Moreover, Nic ameliorated brain edema, decreased neuroinflammation, and improved neurological deficits in a well-established mouse model of ICH. Like niclosamide, the structurally unrelated uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) reduced brain edema, decreased neuroinflammation, and improved neurological deficits following ICH. It has been reported that mitochondrial uncouplers activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mechanistically, Nic enhanced AMPK activation following ICH, and AMPK knockdown abolished the beneficial effects of Nic following ICH. In conclusion, mitochondrial uncouplers conferred protection by activating AMPK to inhibit microglial neuroinflammation following ICH.
Keywords: AMP-activated protein kinase; intracerebral hemorrhage; microglia; mitochondrial uncoupler; neuroinflammation.