Brain Res Bull. 2020 Jul;160:74-84.doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.04.003. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Cerebral cavernous malformation 3 relieves subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced neuroinflammation in rats through inhibiting NF-kB signaling pathway

Wei Peng  1 Xin Wu  1 Dongxie Feng  2 Yunhai Zhang  3 Xiao Chen  1 Chao Ma  1 Haitao Shen  1 Xiang Li  1 Haiying Li  4 Jian Zhang  5 Gang Chen  1 Affiliations


Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe acute cerebrovascular disease with high rates of disability and death. In recent years, a large number of studies has shown that early brain injury (EBI) may be a crucial cause of the poor prognosis of SAH and that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is an important pathological process in EBI. Previous studies have indicated that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is involved in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation after SAH. In addition, it has been reported that cerebral cavernous malformation 3/mammalian sterile20-like kinase 4 (CCM3/MST4) directly phosphorylates TRAF6 to inhibit its ubiquitination and to limit inflammatory responses. However, the association between CCM3/MST4 and SAH has not been reported. In our present study, we established a SAH model in adult male rats through injecting autologous arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Additionally, BV-2 cells, as well as primary microglial cultures from rats treated with oxygen hemoglobin (OxyHb) for 24 h, were used as in vitro models of SAH. Then, western blot, immunofluorescence, Fluoro-JadeC staining and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and behavioral tests was applied in this study. We observed no significant change in the level of CCM3/MST4 in brain tissues, but a markedly decline of CCM3 in microglia of rats. We also found that the protein level of CCM3 was decreased in BV-2 cells after OxyHb treatment, reaching the lowest point at 6 h post-treatment. In contrast, there was no significant change in the protein level of MST4. Additionally, we recapitulated decreased expression of CCM3 and changes in subcellular localization of CCM3 in vitro model of SAH with primary microglial cultures treated with OxyHb. Overexpression of CCM3 decreased cellular degeneration, neurocognitive impairment, NF-κB p65 level in the nuclear, and inflammatory factors level (TNF-a and IL-1β). These results suggest that overexpression of CCM3 alleviated brain injury and neurological damage through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Keywords: Cerebral cavernous malformation 3; Early brain injury; Inflammation; NF-κB; Subarachnoid hemorrhage.