Salicylate Sodium Suppresses Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production by Directly Inhibiting Phosphodiesterase 3B in TNF-α-Stimulated Adipocytes
As a worldwide health issue, obesity is associated with the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into the adipose tissue causing unresolved inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) exerts a crucial effect on obesity-related monocytes/macrophages infiltration. Clinically, aspirin and salsalate are beneficial for the treatment of metabolic diseases in which adipose tissue inflammation plays an essential role. Herein, we investigated the effect and precise mechanism of their active metabolite salicylate on TNF-α-elevated MCP-1 in adipocytes. The results indicated that salicylate sodium (SAS) could lower the level of MCP-1 in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes, which resulted from a previously unrecognized target phosphodiesterase (PDE), 3B (PDE3B), rather than its known targets IKKβ and AMPK. The SAS directly bound to the PDE3B to inactivate it, thus elevating the intracellular cAMP level and activating PKA. Subsequently, the expression of MKP-1 was increased, which led to the decrease in p-EKR and p-p38. Both PDE3B silencing and the pharmacological inhibition of cAMP/PKA compromised the suppressive effect of SAS on MCP-1. In addition to PDE3B, the PDE3A and PDE4B activity was also inhibited by SAS. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized pathway through which SAS is capable of attenuating the inflammation of adipocytes.
Keywords: MKP-1; cAMP; metaflammation; p-ERK; p-p38.