RIPK1-dependent necroptosis promotes vasculogenic mimicry formation via eIF4E in triple-negative breast cancer
Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of programmed cell death. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a key molecule in the initiation of necroptosis and the formation of the necrotic complex. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) provides a blood supply to tumor cells that is not dependent on endothelial cells. However, the relationship between necroptosis and VM in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not fully understood. In this study, we found that RIPK1-dependent necroptosis promoted VM formation in TNBC. Knockdown of RIPK1 significantly suppressed the number of necroptotic cells and VM formation. Moreover, RIPK1 activated the p-AKT/eIF4E signaling pathway during necroptosis in TNBC. eIF4E was blocked by knockdown of RIPK1 or AKT inhibitors. Furthermore, we found that eIF4E promoted VM formation by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the expression and activity of MMP2. In addition to its critical role in necroptosis-mediated VM, eIF4E was essential for VM formation. Knockdown of eIF4E significantly suppressed VM formation during necroptosis. Finally, through clinical significance, the results found that eIF4E expression in TNBC was positively correlated with the mesenchymal marker vimentin, the VM marker MMP2, and the necroptosis markers MLKL and AKT. In conclusion, RIPK1-dependent necroptosis promotes VM formation in TNBC. Necroptosis promotes VM formation by activating RIPK1/p-AKT/eIF4E signaling in TNBC. eIF4E promotes EMT and MMP2 expression and activity, leading to VM formation. Our study provides a rationale for necroptosis-mediated VM and also providing a potential therapeutic target for TNBC.