Int J Biochem Cell Biol . 2016 Jun;75:11-22. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.03.008. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway

Jia Yin  1 Haiying Li  2 Chengjie Meng  3 Dongdong Chen  2 Zhouqing Chen  2 Yibin Wang  2 Zhong Wang  4 Gang Chen  2

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Taixing People’s Hospital, 1 Chang Zheng Road, Taixing 225400, China.
  • 2 Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China.
  • 3 Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Yancheng First Peoples’ Hospital, 16 Yue He Road, Yancheng 224000, China.
  • 4 Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China. Electronic address: nju_neurosurgery@163.com.

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH.

Keywords: Apoptosis; Early brain injury; G protein-coupled receptor 120; Omega-3 fatty acids; Subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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