Distinct effects of different doses of kaempferol on D‑GalN/LPS‑induced ALF depend on the autophagy pathway
Free PMC article
Kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, has various biological functions, such as anti‑inflammatory and antitumor activities. Acute liver failure (ALF) is a lethal clinical syndrome that occurs due to severe damage of the liver function. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of kaempferol in ALF were evaluated. An ALF mouse model was established using D‑galactosamine (D‑GalN; 700 mg/kg)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/kg). A total of 2 h before the administration of D‑GalN/LPS, mice were pretreated with different doses of kaempferol (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), and 6 h after injection of D‑GalN/LPS, mice were euthanized. The survival rate, liver function and levels of inflammatory cytokines were assessed. The results demonstrated that kaempferol pretreatment protected hepatocytes from ALF induced by D‑GalN/LPS via regulation of the autophagy pathway, both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with a high dose of kaempferol significantly decreased the survival rates and increased severe liver damage; however, pretreatment with a low dose of kaempferol had the opposite effect. Furthermore, pretreatment with a high dose of kaempferol enhanced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines [TNF‑α, IL‑6, IL‑12p40, IL‑1β, C‑X‑C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)‑2, CXCL‑10] and markers of the MAPK signaling pathway [phosphorylated (p)‑JNK, p‑ERK, p‑p38], whereas pretreatment with a low dose of kaempferol had the opposite effect. Pretreatment with a high dose of kaempferol decreased autophagy, whereas pretreatment with a low dose of kaempferol increased autophagy in vivo and in vitro. It was also shown that pretreatment with 3‑methyadenine or autophagy related 7 small interfering RNA, to inhibit autophagy, partially abrogated the hepatoprotective effects of pretreatment with 5 mg/kg kaempferol in the ALF mouse model. These results demonstrate that the effects of different doses of kaempferol on D‑GalN/LPS‑induced ALF varies based on the dose, and that kaempferol exerted its effects via regulation of the autophagy pathway.
Keywords: D‑galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide; acute liver failure; autophagy; kaempferol; liver inflammation.