Inhibition of high-fat diet-induced obesity via reduction of ER-resident protein Nogo occurs through multiple mechanisms
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Obesity is a risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Reticulon-4 (Nogo) is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein with unclear functions in obesity. Herein, we investigated the effect of Nogo on obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Human serum samples were collected to explore the relationship between circulating Nogo-B and body mass index value. Nogo-deficient and WT littermate control mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, and HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were injected scrambled or Nogo siRNA for 2 weeks. We found that in human and mouse serum, Nogo-B was positively correlated to body mass index/bodyweight and lipid profiles. Reduced Nogo (by genetic deletion or siRNA transfection) protected mice against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders. We demonstrate that Nogo deficiency reversed HFD-induced whitening of brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing thermogenesis. It also ameliorated lipid accumulation in tissues by activating the adiponectin-adiponectin receptor 1-AMP-activated kinase α signaling axis. Finally, Nogo deficiency potently reduced HFD-induced serum proinflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs, which is related to enhanced NF-κB p65 degradation via the lysosome pathway. Collectively, our study suggests that reduced levels of Nogo protect mice against HFD-induced obesity by increasing thermogenesis and energy metabolism while inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Our results indicate that inhibition of Nogo may be a potential strategy for obesity treatment.
Keywords: AMPKα; NF-κB; Nogo; adipose tissue; inflammation; obesity.