Granulin as an important immune molecule involved in lamprey tissue repair and regeneration by promoting cell proliferation and migration
Free PMC article
Progranulin (PGRN) is an autocrine growth factor that regulates cell proliferation, migration, wound healing, and tissue repair in mammals. Lamprey is the most primitive of the extant vertebrates and is regarded as the survivor of a once flourishing group of paleozoic vertebrates, with a history of more than 500 million years. To date, the evolutionary dynamics and the underlying function of the PGRNs remain largely unclear in lamprey. Here, we screened four genes encoding PGRNs from the genomes of Lethenteron reissneri and Petromyzon marinus, including one long form (named Lr-PGRN-L) and three short forms (named Lr-PGRN-S1, Lr-PGRN-S2, and Lr-PGRN-S3), and performed phylogenetic tree, functional domain, and synteny analyses to identify the evolutionary history of the four Lr-PGRNs. In addition, the expressions of the four Lr-pgrn family genes and the immune response against various pathogenic challenges were also investigated. We found that these genes were widely distributed in various tissues of lamprey and performed a variety of functions. Moreover, our results suggest that Lr-PGRN-S1 induces cell migration and proliferation, and is involved in repair after skin and spinal cord injury under appropriate conditions. Our findings are valuable because they improve the understanding of the evolutionary relationship of vertebrate pgrn genes, as well as providing new insights into the diverse and important roles of Lr-PGRNs.
Keywords: Immune response; Lamprey; PGRN; Tissue repair.