Curcumin attenuates cadmium-induced atherosclerosis by regulating trimethylamine-N-oxide synthesis and macrophage polarization through remodeling the gut microbiota
- PMID: 36084504
- DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.114057
Background: Studies have shown that cadmium (Cd) exposure primarily occurs through diet, and Cd ingestion is a risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. As a target organ, the gastrointestinal tract may play a key role in Cd-induced AS. Additionally, as curcumin is insoluble in water but stable in the stomach of acidic pH, it may play regulative roles in the gut.