Nox4-and Tf/TfR-mediated peroxidation and iron overload exacerbate neuronal ferroptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage: Involvement of EAAT3 dysfunction
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induces high mortality and disability. Neuronal death is the principal factor to unfavourable prognosis in ICH. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which neuronal ferroptosis occurs after ICH and whether the use of corresponding modulators can inhibit neuronal death and improve early outcomes in a rat ICH model. Our findings indicated that Nox4 and TF/TfR were upregulated in the perihematomal tissues of ICH rats. Oxidative stress and iron overload induced by Nox4 and TF/TfR promoted neuronal ferroptosis post-ICH. In contrast, application of Nox4-siRNA and the deferoxamine (DFO) attenuated peroxidation and iron deposition in the hemorrhagic brain, alleviated neuronal ferroptosis, and improved sensorimotor function in ICH rats. Additionally, our findings indicated that the post-ICH neuronal reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion were not related to dysfunctional glutamine delivery in astrocytes but rather to downregulation of EAAT3 due to lipid peroxidation-induced dysfunction in the neuronal membrane. These findings indicate that ferroptosis is involved in neuronal death in model rats with collagenase-induced ICH. Oxidative stress and iron overload induced by Nox4 and TF/TfR exacerbate ferroptosis after ICH, while Nox4 downregulation and iron chelation exert neuroprotective effects. The present results highlight the cysteine importer EAAT3 as a potential biomarker of ferroptosis and provide insight into the neuronal death process that occurs following ICH, which may aid in the development of translational treatment strategies for ICH.
Keywords: EAAT3; Ferroptosis; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Nox4; TF/TfR.