Low-Se Diet Increased Mitochondrial ROS to Suppress Myoblasts Proliferation and Promote Apoptosis in Broilers via miR-365-3p/SelT Signaling Axis
microRNA (miRNA) controls the post-transcriptional translation of mRNA to affect the expression of many genes participating in functional interaction pathways. Selenoproteins are characterized by their antioxidant activity, wherein selenoprotein T (SelT) is an essential membrane-bound selenoprotein serving as a guardian of intracellular homeostasis. During muscle development and regeneration, myoblasts enter the cell cycle and rapidly proliferate. However, the role of SelT in muscle development and selenium (Se) deficiency-induced muscle damage remains poorly investigated. This study established Se deficient broiler models, chicken embryos models, and cultured chicken primary myoblasts in vitro. We showed that Se deficiency induced skeletal muscle damage in broilers, promoted miR-365-3p expression, and downregulated the level of SelT, significantly. The absence of SelT led to the accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide and downregulated mitochondrial dynamics gene expression, which, in turn, induced the disruption of mitochondria potential and blocked the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process. Limited ATP production rate caused by mitochondrial ROS overproduction went along with cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation slowness, and myocyte apoptosis increase. Using Mito-TEMPO for mitochondrial ROS elimination could effectively mitigate the above adverse reactions and significantly restore the proliferation potential of myoblasts. Moreover, we identified miR-365-3p, a miRNA that targeted SelT mRNA to inhibit myoblast proliferation by disrupting intracellular redox balance. The omics analysis results showed that Se deficiency led to the significant enrichment of “cell cycle”, “oxidative stress response”, and “oxidative phosphorylation” pathway genes. Finally, we proved that the effect of the miR-365-3p/SelT signaling axis on muscle development did exist in the chicken embryo stage. In summary, our findings revealed that miR-365-3p was involved in broiler skeletal muscle damage in Se deficiency by targeting SelT, and SelT, serving as an intracellular homeostasis guardian, resisted mitochondrial oxidative stress, and protected ATP generation, promoting myoblast proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. This study provides an attractive target for the cultivated meat industry and regenerative medicine.
Keywords: ATP; SelT; apoptosis; miR-365-3p; mitochondrial ROS; myoblast proliferation.