Heliyon. 2024 Jan 17;10(2):e24778.doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e24778. eCollection 2024 Jan 30.

Anti-tumor effect and mechanism of the total biflavonoid extract from S doederleinii on human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

Affiliations

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.
  • 2 Department of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001, China.
  • 3 Department of Medical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Abstract

In this study, the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of the total biflavonoid extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SDTBE) against cervical cancer were originally investigated in vitro and in vivo. First, the inhibition of SDTBE on proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells was evaluated, followed by morphological observation with AO/EB staining, Annexin V/PI assay, and autophagic flux monitoring to evaluate the possible effect of SDTBE on cell apoptosis and autophagy. Cell cycle, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔѰm), was detected with flow cytometry. Further, the apoptosis related protein expression and the autophagy related gene LC3 mRNA transcription level were analyzed by Western blot (WB) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively. Finally, the anti-cervical cancer effect of the SDTBE was also validated in vivo in HeLa cells grafts mice. As results, SDTBE inhibited HeLa cells proliferation with the IC50 values of 49.05 ± 6.76 and 44.14 ± 4.75 μg/mL for 48 and 72 h treatment, respectively. The extract caused mitochondrial ΔѰ loss, induced cell apoptosis by upregulating Bax, downregulating Bcl-2, activating Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, promoting cell autophagy and blocking the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg SDTBE suppressed the growth of HeLa cells xenografts in mice with the mean inhibition rates, 25.3 %, 57.5 % and 62.9 %, respectively, and the change of apoptosis related proteins and microvascular density was confirmed in xenografts by immunohistochemistry analysis. The results show that SDTBE possesses anti-cervical cancer effect, and the mechanism involves in activating Caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

Keywords: Anti-cervical cancer effect; Autophagy; Caspase-dependent apoptosis; Total biflavonoid extract of S doederleinii.

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