Tetraspanin CD53 regulates peripheral blood leucocytes vitality and pathogen infection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
Cluster of differentiation 53 (CD53) also known as OX44 or tetraspanin 25 (TSPAN25) is a glycoprotein belonging to the tetraspanin family. Members of the tetraspanin family are characterized by four transmembrane domains, including intracellular N- and C-termini, and small and large extracellular domains. Currently, the function of CD53 in teleost is not well understood. In this study, we identified a CD53 (named SmCD53) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and examined its expression and biological activity. SmCD53 contained 231 amino acid residues and was predicted to be a tetraspanin with small and large extracellular domains. SmCD53 expression was observed in different tissues, particularly in immune-related organs. Experimental infection with bacterial or viral pathogen significantly up-regulated SmCD53 expression in a time-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed that SmCD53 was localized on the surface of PBL and was recognized by antibody against its large extracellular domain. Ligation of SmCD53 onto PBLs with antibodies suppressed the respiratory burst activity, inflammatory reaction, and enhanced cell viability. SmCD53 knockdown significantly enhanced bacterial dissemination and proliferation in turbot. Overall, these results underscore the importance of CD53 in the maintenance of the function and homeostasis of the immune system.
Keywords: Antibody ligation; CD53; Immunoregulation; Scophthalmus maximus; Tetraspanin.