2018 Apr 13;92(9). pii: e00033-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00033-18. Print 2018 May 1.

Lactic Acid Downregulates Viral MicroRNA To Promote Epstein-Barr Virus-Immortalized B Lymphoblastic Cell Adhesion and Growth.

Mo X#1,2, Wei F#3, Tong Y#4, Ding L#1, Zhu Q#1, Du S#1, Tan F#2, Zhu C1, Wang Y1, Yu Q2, Liu Y5, Robertson ES6, Yuan Z1, Cai Q7.

Author information

1MOE& MOH Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.2Central Laboratory, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.3ShengYushou Center of Cell Biology and Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.4Division of Hematology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.5Division of Pathology, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.6Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.7MOE& MOH Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China qiliang@fudan.edu.cn.#Contributed equally

Abstract

High plasma lactate is associated with poor prognosis of many malignancies, but its role in virally mediated cancer progression and underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human oncogenic virus, causes several cancers, including B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report that lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) expression and lactate production are elevated in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastic cells, and lactic acid (LA; acidic lactate) at low concentration triggers EBV-infected B-cell adhesion, morphological changes, and proliferation in vitro and in vivo Moreover, LA-induced responses of EBV-infected B cells uniquely occurs in viral latency type III, and it is dramatically associated with the inhibition of global viral microRNAs, particularly the miR-BHRF1 cluster, and the high expression of SMAD3, JUN, and COL1A genes. The introduction of miR-BHRF1-1 blocks the LA-induced effects of EBV-infected B cells. Thus, this may be a novel mechanism to explain EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastic cell malignancy in an LA microenvironment.IMPORTANCE The tumor microenvironment is complicated, and lactate, which is created by cell metabolism, contributes to an acidic microenvironment that facilitates cancer progression. However, how LA operates in virus-associated cancers is unclear. Thus, we studied how EBV (the first tumor virus identified in humans; it is associated with many cancers) upregulates the expression of LDH-A and lactate production in B lymphoma cells. Elevated LA induces adhesion and the growth of EBV-infected B cells by inhibiting viral microRNA transcription. Thus, we offer a novel understanding of how EBV utilizes an acidic microenvironment to promote cancer development.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

KEYWORDS:

B lymphoma; EBV; lactic acid; microRNA

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